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Asthisamharaka (Vitis quadrangularis): A Medicinal Plant with Promising Health Benefits and Therapeutic Potential

Introduction: Asthisamharaka (Vitis quadrangularis), also known as the Devil's Backbone or Hadjod, is a medicinal plant that has been widely used in traditional medicine systems for centuries. With its origins in India, this plant belongs to the Vitaceae family and is characterized by its unique four-angled stem. Hadjod holds significant importance in various cultures due to its potential health benefits and therapeutic properties. Its traditional use can be traced back to ancient Ayurvedic texts, where it is highly regarded for its ability to promote bone health and treat musculoskeletal disorders. Historically, Hadjod has been used as a natural remedy for fractures, bone loss, and joint-related conditions. In Ayurveda, it is classified as a 'Asthisandhaneeya' herb, meaning it has the potential to strengthen bones, promote fracture healing, and improve overall bone health. The plant's name, "Hadjod," is derived from the Hindi word "hadjod,"

Tejpatra: Exploring the Cultural Significance, Culinary Delights, and Potential Health Benefits


Tejpatra, also known by its scientific name Cinnamomum Tamala, is a remarkable herb that has captivated cultures and cuisines for centuries. Imagine walking through a lush forest, where the air is infused with an enchanting aroma, and the leaves shimmer in the dappled sunlight. In this mystical setting, you stumble upon a magnificent tree, adorned with vibrant green leaves that possess a unique fragrance. These leaves are none other than Tejpatra, a botanical treasure that holds immense significance in various traditions and practices.

Tejpatra, derived from the Sanskrit words "Teja" meaning brightness and "Patra" meaning leaf, is aptly named due to the radiant qualities it exudes. It belongs to the Lauraceae family and is native to the Indian subcontinent, particularly prevalent in the Himalayan regions. The tree is evergreen and bears elongated, ovate leaves that are highly prized for their aromatic and medicinal properties.

Throughout history, Tejpatra has been revered in diverse cultures for its traditional and cultural significance. Its leaves have played an integral role in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine, where they are cherished for their therapeutic benefits. Tejpatra has also been a beloved ingredient in culinary practices, lending its distinct flavor and aroma to a multitude of dishes.

In the following sections, we will delve into the botanical description of Tejpatra, explore its traditional uses, uncover its medicinal properties, and unravel its culinary delights. Join us on this journey as we unravel the wonders of Tejpatra and discover why it continues to hold a cherished place in the hearts and palates of many.

Botanical Description:

Tejpatra, scientifically known as Cinnamomum Tamala, possesses distinct physical characteristics that make it easily recognizable. Let's delve into its size, shape, color, and texture, and explore the various parts of the plant.

Tejpatra is an evergreen tree that can reach an impressive height of 10 to 20 meters (33 to 66 feet). It has a straight, sturdy trunk with a smooth, brownish-gray bark that may exhibit slight fissures as the tree matures. The branches of Tejpatra spread widely, forming a dense and symmetrical crown.

The leaves of Tejpatra are the most sought-after part of the plant. They are large and elliptical in shape, measuring approximately 10 to 20 centimeters (4 to 8 inches) in length. The upper surface of the leaves is a vibrant glossy green, while the underside is paler. The leaves are leathery and have a slightly wavy or undulating margin. When crushed or bruised, the leaves release a fragrant aroma, reminiscent of warm spices and sweetness.

Tejpatra also produces small, inconspicuous flowers that bloom in clusters. These flowers are generally greenish-white or pale yellow in color and are characterized by their unassuming nature. While the flowers may not attract immediate attention, they play a crucial role in the tree's reproductive cycle, eventually giving way to the formation of small, dark-colored berries.

Tejpatra thrives in a specific natural habitat, primarily found in the Indian subcontinent. It is native to the Himalayan regions, including Nepal, India, and Bhutan. The tree prefers temperate to subtropical climates and is often found growing at elevations ranging from 300 to 2,700 meters (980 to 8,860 feet) above sea level. It flourishes in well-drained soil and tends to thrive in shady or semi-shady areas, making it a common sight in forested regions.

Traditional and Cultural Significance:

Tejpatra holds a rich historical and cultural significance, deeply intertwined with the traditions and practices of various cultures. Let's explore how this remarkable herb has been revered and utilized in Ayurveda, traditional medicine, and culinary practices, as well as its religious and ceremonial uses.

Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine, has embraced Tejpatra for its therapeutic properties for thousands of years. According to Ayurvedic principles, Tejpatra is classified as a warming spice and is believed to have a heating effect on the body. It is considered to possess digestive, carminative, and expectorant properties. In Ayurvedic medicine, Tejpatra is commonly used to alleviate digestive disorders, promote respiratory health, and support overall well-being.

Tejpatra has also found a significant place in traditional medicine systems beyond Ayurveda. In traditional Chinese medicine, it is known as "Rou Gui Ye" and is valued for its warming properties and ability to invigorate the body. It is often used to support kidney and spleen health, improve circulation, and provide relief from cold-related ailments.

Culturally, Tejpatra has been an integral part of culinary traditions in many regions. Its aromatic leaves are used as a spice and flavoring agent in various cuisines. Tejpatra adds a unique, warm, and slightly sweet flavor to dishes, making it a popular ingredient in savory curries, stews, rice preparations, and pickles. It is often used in combination with other spices like cinnamon, cloves, and cardamom to enhance the overall taste and aroma of dishes.

Furthermore, Tejpatra holds cultural significance in festivals and traditional celebrations. In certain regions, Tejpatra leaves are used to wrap and flavor special dishes during festive occasions, adding a distinct aroma and taste. The presence of Tejpatra in these culinary creations enhances the festive spirit and adds a sense of tradition and heritage to the celebrations.

The historical, cultural, and religious importance of Tejpatra has bestowed it with a revered status in various traditions and practices. From its utilization in Ayurveda and traditional medicine to its role in enhancing culinary delights and enriching religious ceremonies, Tejpatra continues to be an essential and cherished component of many cultures.

Geographically, Tejpatra has spread beyond its native range and can now be found in other countries with suitable climatic conditions. It has been introduced to various parts of Southeast Asia, including Myanmar, Thailand, and Indonesia. Additionally, due to its cultural and culinary significance, Tejpatra has gained popularity in other regions, leading to its cultivation in gardens and plantations worldwide.

Understanding the botanical characteristics, parts, and natural habitat of Tejpatra provides a foundation for exploring its traditional uses, medicinal properties, and culinary applications. Let's now venture further into the fascinating world of Tejpatra and uncover the secrets it holds.

Medicinal Properties and Benefits:

Tejpatra possesses several medicinal properties that have been recognized and utilized in traditional medicine systems. These properties are attributed to the presence of active compounds, such as eugenol, which contribute to its therapeutic benefits. Let's explore the medicinal properties, active compounds, and the ailments for which Tejpatra is believed to be beneficial.


Active Compounds:

Tejpatra contains various bioactive compounds, with eugenol being one of the key constituents. Eugenol is a phenolic compound known for its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic properties. It is responsible for the distinctive aroma and many of the therapeutic effects associated with Tejpatra.

Digestive Health:

Tejpatra has traditionally been used to support digestive health. It is believed to possess carminative properties, helping to relieve flatulence, bloating, and indigestion. The aromatic compounds present in Tejpatra stimulate the secretion of digestive enzymes, promoting efficient digestion.

Respiratory Support:

Tejpatra has been valued for its beneficial effects on the respiratory system. The warming properties and expectorant qualities of Tejpatra make it useful in addressing respiratory issues such as coughs, colds, congestion, and bronchitis. It is believed to help alleviate respiratory discomfort and facilitate the removal of phlegm.

Blood Sugar Regulation:

Tejpatra has been studied for its potential antidiabetic properties. It is believed to help regulate blood sugar levels by enhancing insulin sensitivity and improving glucose metabolism. This makes it a promising herb for individuals with diabetes or those at risk of developing the condition.

Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects:

Tejpatra contains compounds that possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. These properties may help reduce inflammation in the body and protect against oxidative stress, which is associated with various chronic diseases.

Oral Health:

The antimicrobial properties of Tejpatra, particularly due to its eugenol content, make it beneficial for maintaining oral health. It has been used in traditional dental care to alleviate toothache, reduce gum inflammation, and combat oral infections.

Other Potential Benefits:

Tejpatra is believed to have a range of other potential benefits, although further research is needed to substantiate these claims. It has been associated with promoting cardiovascular health, aiding in weight management, supporting liver function, and exhibiting antimicrobial effects against certain pathogens.

Ayurvedic Medicines having Tejpatra as an Ingredient:

Tejpatra, with its diverse array of bioactive compounds, has long been valued for its potential health benefits. Its traditional use in Ayurveda and ongoing research have shed light on its therapeutic properties. Various products incorporating Tejpatra as an ingredient have emerged to harness its potential. Here are a few examples:

Diabazac Powder:

Diabazac Powder is an Ayurvedic diabetic powder that includes Tejpatra among its ingredients. This formulation is designed to support individuals with diabetes by helping regulate blood sugar levels and promoting healthy glucose metabolism. Tejpatra's potential antidiabetic properties, combined with other synergistic herbs, make Diabazac Powder a natural choice for those seeking an alternative approach to diabetes management.

Diabazac Tablets:

Similar to Diabazac Powder, Diabazac Tablets are Ayurvedic diabetic tablets that utilize Tejpatra and other beneficial herbs. These tablets are formulated to provide comprehensive support for individuals with diabetes, aiding in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels and promoting overall well-being. Tejpatra's presence in these tablets contributes to their potential antidiabetic effects.

Orthozac Gold 30 Tablets:

Tejpatra's therapeutic properties extend beyond diabetes management. Orthozac Gold 30 Tablets, an Ayurvedic pain relief formulation, also incorporates Tejpatra among its ingredients. These tablets are designed to alleviate various types of pain and inflammation, providing relief and supporting joint and muscular health. Tejpatra's potential anti-inflammatory properties contribute to the overall efficacy of this Ayurvedic formulation.

These products demonstrate the ongoing efforts to harness Tejpatra's potential in the development of Ayurvedic remedies and herbal and ayurvedic products manufacturers are making effort to provide best possible products containing Tejpatra.


It is important to note that while Tejpatra has a long history of traditional use and shows promise in various aspects of health, it should not replace professional medical advice. If you are considering using Tejpatra for any specific health condition, it is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional to ensure it is safe and appropriate for your individual circumstances.

Tejpatra's medicinal properties and therapeutic benefits have made it a valued herb in traditional medicine systems. Its active compounds, such as eugenol, contribute to its potential effects on digestive health, respiratory support, blood sugar regulation, and more. Continued research into the specific mechanisms and applications of Tejpatra may shed further light on its medicinal potential.

Culinary Uses:

Tejpatra is a versatile spice that adds a distinct flavor and aroma to a wide range of culinary preparations. Its leaves are highly valued for their culinary applications, especially in certain regional cuisines. Let's explore how Tejpatra is used in cooking and highlight some dishes and cuisines where it plays a significant role.

Indian Cuisine:

Tejpatra is a common spice in Indian cuisine, particularly in savory dishes. It is often used as a whole leaf or ground into a powder. Here are a few examples of how Tejpatra is used:

Biryanis and Pulao: Tejpatra leaves are often added to biryanis and pulao, imparting a warm, aromatic flavor to the rice-based dishes.

Curries and Stews: Tejpatra leaves are included in various curries and stews to enhance the overall flavor profile. They are usually added during the cooking process and then removed before serving.

Lentil Soups and Dal: Tejpatra leaves are used in lentil soups and dal preparations, providing a subtle earthy note and enhancing the taste of the dish.

Chutneys and Pickles: Tejpatra leaves can be incorporated into chutneys and pickles, adding a unique flavor and aroma to these condiments.

Nepali Cuisine:

Tejpatra is an essential ingredient in Nepali cuisine, imparting a distinct flavor to many traditional dishes. It is commonly used in:

Momos: Tejpatra leaves are often added to the filling of momos (steamed dumplings), enhancing their flavor and aroma.

Achar (Pickles): Tejpatra leaves are used in Nepali pickles, providing a warm and slightly sweet note to the preserved vegetables.

Indonesian Cuisine:

Tejpatra, known as daun salam, is a key spice in Indonesian cooking. It is used in various dishes, including:

Rendang: Tejpatra leaves are an essential ingredient in rendang, a popular Indonesian beef curry. They contribute to the rich and complex flavor profile of this dish.

Nasi Goreng: Tejpatra leaves are sometimes added to nasi goreng, a flavorful Indonesian fried rice dish, to enhance its taste and aroma.

Unique Flavor and Aroma Characteristics:

Tejpatra leaves have a distinct and captivating flavor and aroma. They exude a warm and slightly sweet fragrance, reminiscent of cinnamon and cloves, with subtle hints of citrus and floral notes. The flavor of Tejpatra can be described as earthy, spicy, and aromatic, adding depth and complexity to dishes. Its unique characteristics make it a sought-after spice, valued for its ability to elevate the taste profile of various culinary creations.


Whether it's adding depth to Indian curries, enhancing the aroma of Nepali momos, or contributing to the rich flavors of Indonesian rendang, Tejpatra plays a significant role in many regional cuisines. Its unique flavor and aroma have made it a beloved spice, enriching the culinary experiences of those who savor its delights.

Harvesting and Processing:

The process of harvesting Tejpatra leaves or bark involves specific techniques to ensure the preservation of their flavor, aroma, and medicinal properties. Let's explore how Tejpatra leaves are harvested, dried, and processed, along with considerations for their preparation.


Tejpatra leaves are typically harvested from mature trees. It is important to select healthy leaves that are free from diseases or pests. The leaves are carefully hand-picked, preferably in the morning when their aromatic compounds are at their peak concentration. It is essential to harvest in a sustainable manner, avoiding excessive stripping of leaves from individual trees to promote their continued growth and health.


After harvesting, Tejpatra leaves are dried to preserve their flavor, aroma, and medicinal properties. Proper drying techniques are crucial to prevent mold growth and degradation of the leaves. The leaves are typically spread out in a well-ventilated area, away from direct sunlight, to allow for gentle air circulation. Traditional methods involve air-drying the leaves naturally, using shade or mild heat, until they become crispy and brittle. This drying process can take several days to a couple of weeks, depending on the environmental conditions.


Once the leaves are completely dried, they are carefully processed to enhance their storage life and facilitate their use in various applications. The dried leaves are usually sorted to remove any impurities or damaged parts. They may be further processed by removing the central vein or stem, although this step is optional depending on the desired use.


To preserve the flavor and aroma of Tejpatra leaves, proper storage is essential. They should be stored in airtight containers, away from moisture, light, and heat. This helps to maintain their quality and prevent the loss of volatile compounds that contribute to their unique characteristics. When stored correctly, Tejpatra leaves can retain their flavor and aroma for an extended period.

Considerations for Preparation:

When using Tejpatra in culinary or medicinal applications, there are specific considerations to maximize its benefits:

Whole Leaves vs. Powder:

Tejpatra leaves are often used as whole leaves or ground into a powder. Whole leaves are typically added during cooking to infuse flavor and aroma, while powdered Tejpatra is more suitable for blending into spice mixes or for easier incorporation in certain dishes.

Infusion and Extraction:

Tejpatra leaves can be infused in hot liquids, such as water or oil, to extract their flavor and medicinal compounds. This process involves steeping the leaves in the liquid for a certain duration, allowing their essence to infuse into the medium.


Cooking Duration:

When using Tejpatra in cooking, it is important to consider the duration of cooking. To extract maximum flavor, Tejpatra leaves are often added during the early stages of cooking, allowing their aromatic compounds to infuse gradually into the dish. They are typically removed before serving, as their texture can be tough and undesirable to consume.


By following proper harvesting, drying, and processing techniques, along with considering the specific preparation methods, Tejpatra can be utilized effectively to enhance the flavor, aroma, and potential health benefits it offers.

Current Research and Future Potential:

Tejpatra continues to be a subject of scientific research, with ongoing studies exploring its potential applications in various fields. While traditional knowledge has long recognized its medicinal and culinary value, modern research aims to validate and expand upon these traditional uses. Here are some areas of current research and potential future applications of Tejpatra:

Medicinal Properties:

Research is being conducted to investigate the specific bioactive compounds present in Tejpatra and their effects on human health. Studies have shown that eugenol, the primary active compound in Tejpatra, possesses antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Further research is underway to better understand the mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications of Tejpatra in treating specific diseases and conditions.

Diabetes Management:

Tejpatra has shown promise in managing blood sugar levels and improving insulin sensitivity in preclinical and clinical studies. Ongoing research aims to elucidate the mechanisms by which Tejpatra influences glucose metabolism and explore its potential as a complementary therapy for individuals with diabetes.

Antimicrobial Activity:

Tejpatra has demonstrated antimicrobial properties against various pathogens, including bacteria and fungi. Current research is focused on identifying the specific mechanisms of action and exploring the potential use of Tejpatra extracts or compounds in developing natural antimicrobial agents or preservatives.

Anticancer Potential:

Some studies suggest that Tejpatra may possess anticancer properties, attributed to its bioactive compounds. Research is underway to investigate the potential role of Tejpatra in cancer prevention and treatment, including its effects on cancer cell growth, apoptosis, and angiogenesis inhibition.

Nutritional and Functional Properties:

Tejpatra contains various bioactive compounds, including polyphenols and flavonoids, which contribute to its nutritional and functional properties. Ongoing research aims to explore the antioxidant capacity, nutrient composition, and potential health benefits associated with Tejpatra consumption.

Agricultural Applications:

Research is being conducted to evaluate the agronomic practices, cultivation techniques, and genetic diversity of Tejpatra plants. These studies aim to enhance the yield, quality, and sustainability of Tejpatra production, ensuring a consistent supply of this valuable spice.


As research on Tejpatra progresses, there is a growing recognition of its potential applications in medicine, nutrition, and agriculture. Continued scientific investigations will provide a deeper understanding of its bioactive compounds, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic potential. The findings from ongoing research hold the promise of expanding the utilization of Tejpatra in various fields, leading to the development of new drugs, dietary supplements, functional foods, and agricultural practices.

Precautions and Side Effects:

While Tejpatra is generally considered safe for culinary use, it is important to be aware of certain precautions, side effects, and interactions that may occur, especially when using Tejpatra for medicinal purposes. Here are some considerations:

Allergies: Some individuals may have allergies or sensitivities to Tejpatra or its components. If you are allergic to other plants from the Lauraceae family, such as cinnamon or bay leaves, there is a possibility of cross-reactivity. It is advisable to exercise caution or avoid Tejpatra if you have known allergies.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Limited information is available regarding the safety of Tejpatra during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It is recommended to consult a healthcare professional before using Tejpatra for medicinal purposes if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding.

Medication Interactions: Tejpatra, like many herbal products, may interact with certain medications. It is important to exercise caution if you are taking medications for diabetes, blood thinners, or other medications that may be affected by herbs or spices. Consulting with a healthcare professional is essential if you are on any medications to ensure safe and appropriate use of Tejpatra.

It is important to note that the information provided here is not exhaustive, and individual reactions may vary. To ensure safe and appropriate use, it is strongly advised to consult a qualified healthcare professional, such as a herbalist, naturopathic doctor, or physician, before using Tejpatra for medicinal purposes, especially if you have any pre-existing medical conditions, are on medication, or are pregnant or breastfeeding.

A healthcare professional can evaluate your specific circumstances, provide personalized advice, and help determine the suitability and appropriate dosage of Tejpatra based on your individual needs and health considerations.


Tejpatra, also known as Cinnamomum Tamala, holds significant cultural and traditional importance. This aromatic spice has been used for centuries in various cultures, including Ayurveda and traditional medicine, as well as in culinary practices. Throughout this article, we have explored its botanical description, traditional and cultural significance, culinary uses, medicinal properties, harvesting and processing techniques, and current research.


Tejpatra's cultural significance is reflected in its use in religious rituals, festive celebrations, and traditional remedies. Its aromatic and warm flavor profile adds depth and complexity to a wide range of dishes, particularly in Indian, Nepali, and South Asian cuisines. Tejpatra's culinary uses extend from curries and rice dishes to pickles and spice blends.

In terms of its potential health benefits, Tejpatra possesses medicinal properties attributed to its active compounds, such as eugenol. It has been traditionally used to aid digestion, support respiratory health, regulate blood sugar levels, and exhibit antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Ongoing research is further exploring its therapeutic potential in areas such as diabetes management, antimicrobial applications, and potential anticancer properties.

Tejpatra's rich history, cultural significance, culinary versatility, and potential health benefits make it a remarkable spice. Whether enjoyed in a comforting curry or utilized for its potential therapeutic properties, Tejpatra adds a distinct touch to our lives. Its fragrance and flavor evoke a sense of tradition and wellness, inviting us to explore the world of spices and embrace their holistic benefits.

So, the next time you come across Tejpatra, take a moment to appreciate its cultural heritage, savor its culinary magic, and explore the potential it holds for enhancing our well-being.



The information provided here is for informational purposes only and should not replace professional medical advice. Always consult a qualified healthcare practitioner for personalized guidance.

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