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Asthisamharaka (Vitis quadrangularis): A Medicinal Plant with Promising Health Benefits and Therapeutic Potential

Introduction: Asthisamharaka (Vitis quadrangularis), also known as the Devil's Backbone or Hadjod, is a medicinal plant that has been widely used in traditional medicine systems for centuries. With its origins in India, this plant belongs to the Vitaceae family and is characterized by its unique four-angled stem. Hadjod holds significant importance in various cultures due to its potential health benefits and therapeutic properties. Its traditional use can be traced back to ancient Ayurvedic texts, where it is highly regarded for its ability to promote bone health and treat musculoskeletal disorders. Historically, Hadjod has been used as a natural remedy for fractures, bone loss, and joint-related conditions. In Ayurveda, it is classified as a 'Asthisandhaneeya' herb, meaning it has the potential to strengthen bones, promote fracture healing, and improve overall bone health. The plant's name, "Hadjod," is derived from the Hindi word "hadjod,"

Naushadar (Ammonium Chloride): Properties, Applications, and Uses


Naushadar, also known as Ammonium Chloride, is a chemical compound with the molecular formula NH4Cl. It is commonly referred to by its systematic name, ammonium chloride, as well as other names such as sal ammoniac or Salmiac. Naushadar is a white crystalline powder with a characteristic salty taste.

Naushadar holds significant importance and finds applications in various industries due to its unique properties and versatile nature. Naushadar has widespread relevance in the pharmaceutical industry. It is utilized in the formulation of medications, including cough syrups, expectorants, and certain respiratory medications. Due to its ability to irritate the respiratory tract, Naushadar acts as an expectorant, promoting the expulsion of mucus and facilitating easier breathing.

The food industry also benefits from Naushadar's properties. It is commonly used as a food additive, providing a salty taste without contributing sodium chloride (table salt). Naushadar can be found in various food products such as seasoning blends, snacks, and even licorice candies.

Naushadar (Ammonium Chloride) is a versatile compound with a wide range of applications. Its significance extends to agriculture, pharmaceuticals, metalwork, textiles, and the food industry. Its unique properties make it a valuable ingredient in numerous products and processes, contributing to various sectors and enhancing their functionality.

Chemical Properties:

Naushadar, or Ammonium Chloride, exhibits distinct physical and chemical properties. Let's delve into its characteristics:

Physical Appearance: Naushadar typically appears as a white crystalline powder or granules. The crystals are generally colorless and have a crystalline structure.

Texture: The texture of Naushadar is typically grainy or crystalline, with a fine or powdery consistency. It may feel slightly gritty when touched.

Odor: Naushadar is odorless, meaning it does not possess a characteristic smell or fragrance.

Molecular Structure: The molecular structure of Naushadar consists of ammonium ions (NH4+) and chloride ions (Cl-) arranged in a crystal lattice. The ammonium ion consists of one nitrogen atom (N) bonded to four hydrogen atoms (H), forming a positively charged polyatomic cation. The chloride ion is a negatively charged monatomic anion formed by a single chlorine atom (Cl-).

Solubility: Naushadar exhibits moderate solubility in water. When mixed with water, the crystals dissolve readily, forming a clear solution. The solubility of Naushadar increases with higher temperatures. However, it is relatively less soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol or ether.

pH and Acidity: Naushadar is an acidic compound. When dissolved in water, it dissociates into ammonium ions (NH4+) and chloride ions (Cl-). The presence of ammonium ions makes the solution slightly acidic, lowering its pH value.

Volatility: Naushadar has a relatively low volatility at room temperature. It does not readily evaporate into the air and remains stable in its solid form.

Hygroscopic Nature: Naushadar possesses hygroscopic properties, meaning it has a tendency to absorb moisture from the surrounding environment. This characteristic makes it prone to clumping or becoming sticky when exposed to humid conditions.

Notable Chemical Properties: Naushadar exhibits an endothermic reaction when dissolved in water, resulting in a decrease in temperature of the solution. It can act as a weak acid and release hydrogen ions when dissolved, contributing to its acidic properties.

Furthermore, Naushadar undergoes decomposition upon heating, converting into ammonia gas (NH3) and hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). This property makes it useful in certain industrial processes, such as in the production of ammonia or as a source of hydrogen chloride for chemical reactions.

It is important to note that these chemical properties contribute to the versatility and utility of Naushadar in various applications, allowing it to fulfill its roles as a fertilizer, pharmaceutical ingredient, flux, food additive, and more.

Occurrence and Sources:

Naushadar, or Ammonium Chloride, occurs naturally in various regions and can be sourced from different geological formations. Here's an overview of its occurrence, sources, and extraction methods:

Natural Occurrence:

Naushadar is found in nature as a mineral deposit in certain volcanic regions and geothermal areas. It is often associated with the presence of volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, and volcanic gases. These geological processes contribute to the formation of Naushadar-rich deposits.

Sources and Geological Formations:

Naushadar deposits are commonly found in countries with active or dormant volcanoes. Some notable regions where Naushadar can be found include:

1. Chile: The Atacama Desert in Chile is a significant source of Naushadar. The arid climate and mineral-rich soils contribute to the accumulation of Naushadar deposits.

2. China: The Tengchong region in Yunnan Province, China, is known for its Naushadar reserves. The volcanic activity in the area has resulted in the formation of Naushadar-rich deposits.

3. Japan: Naushadar deposits can be found in regions such as Hokkaido and Kyushu in Japan. Volcanic activity and geothermal areas contribute to the presence of Naushadar in these regions.

Extraction and Production:

The extraction of Naushadar commercially typically involves the following methods:


Naushadar deposits are extracted through mining operations. The mineral-rich deposits are identified, and the ore is excavated from the ground using mining techniques such as open-pit or underground mining.


Once the ore is extracted, it undergoes a series of processing steps. The ore is crushed and ground into smaller particles to increase its surface area. Subsequently, various separation techniques such as flotation or sedimentation are employed to separate Naushadar from other impurities present in the ore.


The extracted Naushadar undergoes further purification processes to remove any remaining impurities and ensure a high-quality product. This may involve additional chemical treatments or filtration methods.

Drying and Packaging:

After purification, the Naushadar is dried to remove excess moisture and achieve the desired moisture content. It is then packaged in appropriate containers or bags for distribution and commercial use.

It is important to note that while Naushadar can be obtained from natural sources, it is also produced synthetically through chemical reactions. Industrial-scale production of Naushadar involves combining ammonia gas (NH3) with hydrochloric acid (HCl) in controlled conditions to form Ammonium Chloride.

By utilizing natural deposits or synthetic production methods, Naushadar is made available for various applications across industries, contributing to its widespread use and availability.

Uses and Applications:

Naushadar (Ammonium Chloride) has a wide range of applications across various industries. Let's explore its diverse uses:

Pharmaceutical Industry:

Naushadar plays a vital role in the pharmaceutical sector. It is used in the formulation of medications, primarily in the respiratory field. It acts as an expectorant, helping to loosen and expel mucus from the respiratory tract. Naushadar is found in cough syrups, expectorants, and certain respiratory medications to facilitate easier breathing and alleviate respiratory congestion. It is also used by ayurvedic manufacturers in ayurvedic industry. Elz-Kuf is one of the cough syrups that contains Naushadar as one of the main active ingredients.

Food Processing:

In the food industry, Naushadar serves as a food additive. It provides a salty taste without contributing to sodium chloride (table salt) content. Naushadar can be found in various food products such as seasoning blends, snacks, and licorice candies. It enhances the flavour profile of these food items.


Naushadar is commonly used as a nitrogenous fertilizer in agriculture and gardening. It provides a readily available source of nitrogen, which is essential for plant growth and development. It is particularly beneficial for crops that thrive in acidic soil conditions, as Naushadar helps maintain the pH balance necessary for optimal nutrient absorption. It promotes healthy foliage, enhances root development, and increases crop yield.

Metalwork and Soldering:

Naushadar is utilized in metalwork and soldering applications. It acts as a flux, which helps remove oxides and impurities from metal surfaces during soldering or welding processes. Naushadar forms a eutectic mixture with metal oxides, lowering the melting point of metals and facilitating the bonding of metal components. It enhances the efficiency of soldering and contributes to strong and durable joints.

Textile Industry:

Naushadar finds application in the textile industry for printing and dyeing processes. It acts as a dye fixative, helping to improve color fastness and the longevity of dyes on fabric. Naushadar aids in achieving vibrant and long-lasting colors in textile products.


Naushadar is used in electroplating processes as an electrolyte additive. It helps in improving the deposition and adhesion of metal coatings during electroplating operations.

Laboratory and Analytical Applications:

Naushadar is employed in various laboratory and analytical procedures. It is used as a reagent in chemical reactions and as a source of chloride ions in analytical techniques such as titrations.

Other Applications:

Naushadar has additional uses such as in the manufacture of dry cell batteries, as a component in fire extinguishing powders, as a flux in tinning and galvanizing processes, and as a component in some cleaning agents.

The versatile nature of Naushadar contributes to its broad range of applications across multiple industries, making it a valuable and widely used compound.


In conclusion, Naushadar (Ammonium Chloride) is a compound with significant importance and widespread applications across various fields. Throughout the article, we explored its key aspects:

Naushadar is a compound with the chemical formula NH4Cl, also known as Ammonium Chloride.

In the pharmaceutical industry, Naushadar is utilized as an expectorant in respiratory medications, helping to alleviate respiratory congestion.

Its applications extend to the food industry as a food additive, electroplating processes, laboratory procedures, and various industrial applications.

Naushadar can be naturally occurring, sourced from volcanic regions, or produced synthetically through controlled reactions between ammonia and hydrochloric acid.

Naushadar's versatility and significance in agriculture, pharmaceuticals, industries, and other fields make it a compound of great importance. Continued research and advancements contribute to its continued development and utilization in various applications.



The information provided here is for informational purposes only and should not replace professional medical advice. Always consult a qualified healthcare practitioner for personalized guidance.

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